No Rebirth For Insulin Secreting Pancreatic Beta Cells

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No Rebirth For Insulin Secreting Pancreatic Beta Cells


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Old 04-26-2013, 12:58   #1
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Default No Rebirth For Insulin Secreting Pancreatic Beta Cells

( Not good news you better take care of the beta cells you have!)

No Rebirth For Insulin Secreting Pancreatic Beta Cells

Pancreatic beta cells store and release insulin, the hormone responsible for stimulating cells to convert glucose to energy. The number of beta cells in the pancreas increases in response to greater demand for insulin or injury, but it is not clear if the new beta cells are the result of cell division or the differentiation of a precursor cell, a process known as neogenesis. Knowledge of how beta cells are created and maintained is critical to understanding diseases in which these cells are lost, such as diabetes.

In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, George Gittes and colleagues at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh used a fluorescent cell labeling method in mice to determine exactly when precursor cells develop into pancreatic beta cells. They observed neogenesis during embryonic development, but did not find any evidence of neogenesis in adult mice. These data demonstrate that beta cell neogenesis is not possible in adult mice.

In a companion commentary, Michael German at the University of California, San Francisco, discusses the experiments that will be required to determine if these findings also apply to humans.

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Old 04-26-2013, 12:59   #2
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JCI - No evidence for β cell neogenesis in murine adult pancreas

JCI - No evidence for β cell neogenesis in murine adult pancreas

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Old 04-26-2013, 17:22   #3
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OK, so perhaps no new ones will be "created" from precursor cells. But, where are the ones that used to be there? We often refer to them as "dead", but are they? I read somewhere that they are still there. They're not "dead" and they're not "gone".

What happens is that they lose their glucose receptors. Obviously, beta cells don't require insulin to uptake glucose - that would be an impossible logic loop. They have receptors which allow glucose in. That's how they gauge how much glucose is around and therefore how much insulin they should produce and secrete.

This sounds to me like just another flavor of "insulin resistance", although in this case it's more like "glucose resistance". I believe it is known/measured that beta cell degradation (I think we should stop calling it "death") worsens under sustained conditions of hyperglycemia. They're inundated with more and more glucose and so more and more of them decide to "shut down" and lose their glucose receptors.

So, perhaps the fact that no new ones will get created - kind of like teeth, huh? - doesn't necessarily mean that the dormant ones couldn't come back on line if something were able to convince them to restore glucose receptors and let it in once again.

I don't think we even know if their ability to produce insulin is damaged or not. Since they can't admit the glucose to trigger the insulin release it never happens. They could be just fine in every other way.

Teeth can't re-grow enamel, but who knows, perhaps a way will be found to restore the beta cell glucose receptors and therefor their function?

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Old 04-26-2013, 18:10   #4
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I like the line of thinking on this one Salim. I actually understood what you said!!! That doesn't happen too often because you are so scientific and technical, and obviously understand all this stuff. Where, on the other hand, I do not! But, I actually understood what you suggested and agree!!

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Old 04-26-2013, 21:05   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by smorgan View Post
OK, so perhaps no new ones will be "created" from precursor cells. But, where are the ones that used to be there? We often refer to them as "dead", but are they? I read somewhere that they are still there. They're not "dead" and they're not "gone".

What happens is that they lose their glucose receptors. Obviously, beta cells don't require insulin to uptake glucose - that would be an impossible logic loop. They have receptors which allow glucose in. That's how they gauge how much glucose is around and therefore how much insulin they should produce and secrete.

This sounds to me like just another flavor of "insulin resistance", although in this case it's more like "glucose resistance". I believe it is known/measured that beta cell degradation (I think we should stop calling it "death") worsens under sustained conditions of hyperglycemia. They're inundated with more and more glucose and so more and more of them decide to "shut down" and lose their glucose receptors.

So, perhaps the fact that no new ones will get created - kind of like teeth, huh? - doesn't necessarily mean that the dormant ones couldn't come back on line if something were able to convince them to restore glucose receptors and let it in once again.

I don't think we even know if their ability to produce insulin is damaged or not. Since they can't admit the glucose to trigger the insulin release it never happens. They could be just fine in every other way.

Teeth can't re-grow enamel, but who knows, perhaps a way will be found to restore the beta cell glucose receptors and therefor their function?
I just posted a study on mice that a hormone betatrophin make beta cells multiply. I don't think that any of the science is settle. There may be hope on the future.

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