Molecular Mechanism behind Fat Cell Growth Holds Clue to Type 2 Diabetes

by Barbara Hewitt on August 3, 2016

Obese people with type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes may more easily accumulate fat in their body, according to scientists who have discovered a molecular mechanism behind fat cell growth.

They found that the formation and expansion of fat cells is associated with an increase in autophagy, a normal physiological process in which cells remodel, break down or recycle cell parts.

weight-scaleThe study, led by researchers at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in the United States, suggests that a particular protein called FoxO1 controls autophagy, which also controls the growth of fat particles in fat cells from mice.

‘Earlier evidence suggests that autophagy is enhanced in fat tissue in people who are obese and have type 2 diabetes. Our findings shed light on the mechanistic mystery of this phenomenon,’ said Zhiyong Cheng, an assistant professor of human nutrition, foods and exercise.

‘Because FoxO1 is activated by insulin resistance, obese and diabetic individuals may have an increase in the process of autophagy because this protein triggers it. When this happens, it promotes fat cell formation and expansion.’

The study report points out that a normal rate of fat cell formation and growth is important for the body to store energy and maintain homeostasis. Evidence also suggests that fat tissue is an endocrine organ, and thus is responsible for the secretion of molecules that regulate various cellular functions, including metabolism and inflammation response in the body.

Cheng said that healthy fat tissue secretes anti-inflammatory hormones that help maintain a healthy functioning metabolism. However, fat tissue may become dysfunctional due to obesity, which increases pro-inflammation factors and promotes metabolic disorders.

‘Abnormal fat tissue expansion might be a result of hyperactivity of the FoxO1 protein and of a nutrient surplus in obese diabetic people,’ he added.

‘Further studies from here could lead to the discovery of a drug so that the pathway could be blocked and abnormal fat cell expansion could be stopped, which would prevent the increase of adiposity, or severe body weight.’

Given that FoxO1 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes, targeting it may even be beneficial for obese individuals with diabetes – this according to Yun Chau Long, one of the study’s co-authors at the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore.

Chronic obesity is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, gallstones, breathing problems and certain types of cancer, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. In the United States, obesity accounts for more than 300,000 deaths per year.

The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community and should not be interpreted as medical advice. Please see your doctor before making any changes to your diabetes management plan.

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